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All radiocarbon ages are normalized to a 13C of -25‰ relative to PDB.Calibration In the 1950s it was observed that the radiocarbon timescale was not perfect.He noted some discrepancies indicating that radiocarbon results would need to be “calibrated” to convert them to calendar ages.de Vries also postulated that the fluctuations were due to the production of 14C and how it changed during variations in cosmic ray production.14C enters the dissolved inorganic carbon pool in the oceans, lakes and rivers.From there it is incorporated into shell, corals and other marine organisms.
Both the OX-II and ANU have been extensively cross-calibrated to OX-I and can be used to normalize a sample for radiocarbon dating.The age of known artefacts from Egypt were too young when measured by radiocarbon dating.A scientist from the Netherlands (Hessel de Vries) tested this by radiocarbon dating tree rings of know ages (de Vries, 1958).The main limitation of these techniques is sample size, as hundreds of grams of carbon are needed to count enough decaying beta particles.This is especially true for old samples with low beta activity.
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This method needs less than 1 mg of carbon and directly measures the abundance of the individual ions of carbon (14C, 12C and 13C).