On dating stages in prebiotic chemical evolution

and possibly as early as the Eoarchean Era (between 3.6 and 4.0 billion years ago), after geological crust started to solidify following the molten Hadean Eon.In May 2017, evidence of the earliest known life on land may have been found in 3.48-billion-year-old geyserite and other related mineral deposits (often found around hot springs and geysers) uncovered in the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia.On Earth, the transition from non-living to living entities was not a single event but a gradual process of increasing complexity.Abiogenesis is studied through a combination of paleontology, chemistry, and extrapolation from the characteristics of modern organisms, and aims to determine how pre-life chemical reactions gave rise to life on Earth.Precambrian stromatolites in the Siyeh Formation, Glacier National Park.

The Hadean environment would have been highly hazardous to modern life.

The Hadean Earth is thought to have had a secondary atmosphere, formed through degassing of the rocks that accumulated from planetesimal impactors.

At first, it was thought that the Earth's atmosphere consisted of hydrogen compounds—methane, ammonia and water vapour—and that life began under such reducing conditions, which are conducive to the formation of organic molecules.

It remains unclear what geochemical situations could drive all the stages of chemical evolution, ranging from condensation of simple inorganic compounds to the emergence of self-sustaining systems that were evolvable into modern biological ones.

In this review, we summarize reported experimental and theoretical findings for prebiotic chemistry relevant to this topic, including availability of biologically essential elements (N and P) on the Hadean Earth, abiotic synthesis of life's building blocks (amino acids, peptides, ribose, nucleobases, fatty acids, nucleotides, and oligonucleotides), their polymerizations to bio-macromolecules (peptides and oligonucleotides), and emergence of biological functions of replication and compartmentalization.

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Frequent collisions with large objects, up to 500 kilometres (310 mi) in diameter, would have been sufficient to sterilize the planet and vaporize the ocean within a few months of impact, with hot steam mixed with rock vapour becoming high altitude clouds that would completely cover the planet.

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